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• Information revolution in Biology. Interrelationship of Bioinformatics and the other scientific disciplines.
• Physico-chemical properties of nucleic acids and amino acids
• Application of Principal Component Analysis in the clustering of amino acids properties.
• Molecular evolution, population genetics and Bioinformatics.
• Genealogical trees and coalescence, and human evolution.
• Models of molecular evolution. Jukes-Cantor model for nucleic acids evolution. PAM model of protein evolution.
• Scoring matrices: PAM, BLOSUM and log-odd scoring matrices, alignment score.
• Databases of genes and proteins.
• Database of 3D structures of proteins: PDB. Protein family databases: CATH and SCOP
• Sequence alignment algorithms, alignment of pair and multiple sequences, local and global alignment.
• Database search.
• Phylogenetic methods.
• Distance matrices and clustering methods
• Secondary and tertiary structures of RNA and RNA database
• Consider the rapid expansion in the amount of biological sequence data available and compare this to the exponential growth in computer speed and memory size that has occurred;recognize why bioinformatics is now essenti